Synthesis of the copper and bronze nanopowders and materials on their basis

B. Gelchinski1,3, E. Dyuldina2 and L. Zolotukhina3

1Institute of Metallurgy of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Russia
2Magnitogorsk State Technical Unoversity, Russia
3Fine Metal Powders Company, Russia

Keywords: synthesis, nanopowders
property: diffusion, structure
material: copper and bronze

Copper and copper alloy nano and ultra fine powders are produced by the gas-phase synthesis method using the in-house developed technology and equipment. The process includes melting and evaporation of the metal, vapor condensation in an inert gas flow and accumulation of the condensed solid phase in the cold part of the apparatus. Stabilization of the powder can be carried out when necessary by introducing a passivation agent in the process giving an inert film of less than 10 angstrom thickness. The synthesized powders have the particle size in the range of 20 to 600 nm. A comprehensive study of formation of copper and copper alloys powders and of their properties have revealed their peculiarities and allowed to determine the basic operational parameters of evaporation and condensation processes ensuring production of powders with targeted properties. The described technique of nonstructural modifying of the mating steel surfaces opens promising areas of usage of copper alloys nanopowders i.e. as a method of prolongation of the service life of machines and mechanisms. It is known, that under influence of a severe mechanical impact and high temperatures the superficial layers of a metal crush, forming layers of a crystalline structure with fragments sized in the range of 3nm up to 700 nm. This leads to manifold increase in diffusion activity of atoms and to rendering the structure of the metal surface practically non-porous. This effect can not be reached by any other known way of treatment. It was found by our studies, that processes, leading to nonstructural transformations in the superficial layers of steel , occur when a submicron copper alloy powder is introduced between two mating steel surfaces. Studies were carried out with the purpose to find some new promising areas for application of copper and its alloys nanopowders. It is worth mentioning, for example, that alloying powdered steel with copper nanopowders leads to significant improvement of the plasticity characteristics, such as relative extension, impact viscosity and hardness.

Supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (RFBR) Project #09-03- 00069-а, 10-03-90024-bel_а

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